This research by MacIver and MacIver analyzed Baltimore City Schools data for the 6,662 first-time ninth graders in 2007-08. The authors found chronic absenteeism was widespread, core course failure was even more common than chronic absenteeism, and suspensions were much less prevalent. They assert that to raise the graduation rate in Baltimore City will require specifically targeted efforts to increase attendance and reduce ninth grade course failure. The authors recommend that schools collect systematic data on what they are actually doing to prevent course failure as well as to provide credit recovery options for students who need them. This resource may be particularly useful to schools or districts looking to improve high school graduation rates and preventing dropouts.